The Victor Mine (Superior Craton, Canada): Neoproterozoic lherzolitic diamonds from a thermally-modified cratonic root Journal Article uri icon

DCO ID 11121/3909-1824-5415-2435-CC

is Contribution to the DCO

  • YES

year of publication

  • 2018

abstract

  • The Jurassic Victor kimberlite (Attawapiskat Field) was emplaced into an area of the central Superior Craton that was affected by a lithosphere-scale thermal event at ~1.1 Ga. Victor diamonds formed ca. 400 million years after this event, in a lithospheric mantle characterized by an unusually cool model geotherm (37–38 mW/m2; Hasterok and Chapman 2011). The bulk of Victor diamonds derives from a thin (<10 km thick) layer that is located at about 180 km depth and represents lherzolitic substrates (for 85% of diamonds). Geothermobarometric calculations (average pressure and temperature at the 1 sigma level are 57 ± 2 kbar and 1129 ± 16 °C) coupled with typical fluid metasomatism-associated trace element patterns for garnet inclusions indicate diamond precipitation under sub-solidus (lherzolite + H2O) conditions. This conclusion links the presence of a diamond-rich lherzolitic layer in the lithospheric mantle, just above the depth where ascending melts would freeze, to the unusually low paleogeotherm beneath Attawapiskat, because along an average cratonic geotherm (40 mW/m2) lherzolite in the presence of hydrous fluid would melt at depths >140 km.