Oceanography is inherently interdisciplinary and, since its inception, has included the study of microbe-mineral interactions. From early studies of manganese nodules, to the discovery of hydrothermal vents, it has been recognized that microorganisms are involved at various levels in the transformation of rocks and minerals at and below the seafloor. Recent studies include mineral weathering at low temperatures and microbe-mineral interactions in the subseafloor 'deep biosphere'. A common characteristic of seafloor and subseafloor geomicrobiological processes that distinguishes them from terrestrial or near-surface processes is that they occur in the dark, one or more steps removed from the sunlight that fuels the near-surface biosphere on Earth. This review focuses on geomicrobiological studies and energy flow in dark, deep-ocean and subseafloor rock habitats.