Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow Journal Article uri icon

DCO ID 11121/2355-2477-7905-6306-CC

is Contribution to the DCO

  • YES

year of publication

  • 2016

abstract

  • Large volcanic eruptions on Earth commonly occur with a collapse of the roof of a crustal magma reservoir, forming a caldera. Only a few such collapses occur per century, and the lack of detailed observations has obscured insight into the mechanical interplay between collapse and eruption. We use multiparameter geophysical and geochemical data to show that the 110-square-kilometer and 65-meter-deep collapse of Bárdarbunga caldera in 2014–2015 was initiated through withdrawal of magma, and lateral migration through a 48-kilometers-long dike, from a 12-kilometers deep reservoir. Interaction between the pressure exerted by the subsiding reservoir roof and the physical properties of the subsurface flow path explain the gradual, near-exponential decline of both collapse rate and the intensity of the 180-day-long eruption.

associated DCO Team

authors

volume

  • 353

issue

  • 6296