Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticides in the world. They are preferentially toxic to insects while displaying a low toxicity toward vertebrates, and this selective toxicity has resulted in the rapid and ubiquitous use of these compounds. However, neonicotinoids have been detected in agricultural surface waters and are known to cause adverse effects in non-target aquatic organisms. A wide range of toxicity has been reported for aquatic crustaceans, but most of the studies focus on the acute effects of imidacloprid, and few data are available regarding chronic effects of other neonicotinoids or neonicotinoid replacements (e.g., butenolides). The objective of this study was to assess the acute and chronic toxicity of six neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, clothianidin, thiacloprid, and dinotefuran) and one butenolide (flupyradifurone) to the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. Chronic (28-d), water-only, static-renewal tests were conducted. Survival was assessed weekly, and growth was measured at the end of the exposure. Effects of neonicotinoids varied depending on the compound. Acute (7-d) LC50s were 4.0, 4.7, 60, 68, 230, and 290 μg/L for clothianidin, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, thiacloprid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam, respectively. Chronic (28-d) survival and growth were reduced at similar concentrations to acute (7-d) survival for thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, clothianidin, and dinotefuran. However, chronic survival and growth of amphipods exposed to imidacloprid and thiacloprid were reduced at lower concentrations than acute survival, with respective 28-d LC50s of 90 and 44 μg/L, and EC50s of 4 and 3 μg/L. Flupyradifurone was intermediate in toxicity compared to the neonicotinoids: 7-d LC50, 28-d LC50, and 28-d EC50 were 26, 20, and 16 μg/L, respectively. The concentrations of imidacloprid and clothianidin reported for North American surface waters fall within the effect ranges observed in this study, indicating the potential for these compounds to cause adverse effects to indigenous populations of H. azteca.